Vodafone Group Plc provides mobile telecommunication services worldwide. It offers mobile voice services to approximately 407 million customers; messaging services; mobile data services; fixed broadband services; and whole sale carrier services. The company also provides business managed services, such as secure remote network access services, as well as operates and sells mobile virtual network access. In addition, it supplies smartphones and tablets; designs, manufactures, and sells handsets under the Vodafone brand; and supplies connected smart devices, such as 4G/LTE mobile broadband stick, and Vodafone WebBox that enables customer to connect to the Internet through television sets. The company directly owns and manages approximately 2,200 stores, as well as has approximately 10,300 Vodafone-branded stores operated through franchises and dealer arrangements. It also offers its products and services through third party services providers, independent dealers, distributors, and retailers, as well as through Internet. Vodafone Group Plc was founded in 1984 and is based in Newbury, the United Kingdom.



MMRDA was set up on the 26th January, 1975 under the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority Act, 1974 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region comprising of Mumbai and its influence area.

Its activities are:

  • Development planning for the region
  • Provision of regional infrastructure
  • Promotion of growth centres
  • Provision of development finance
  • Development Co Ordination

The MMRDA prepares plans; formulates policies and programmes; implements projects and helps in directing investments in the Region.

In particular, it conceives, promotes and monitors the key projects for developing new growth centres and bring about improvement in sectors like transport, housing, water supply and environment in the Region.



The Public Procurement and Asset Disposal Board (PPADB) was established by an Act of Parliament as an independent authority responsible for overseeing, coordination and management of procurement of public works, supplies, services and disposal of assets.

The core function of PPADB is to monitor compliance and adherence to the Public Procurement Norms by the Procuring Entities of the Government of Botswana. Its functions include registration of Contractors, vetting of ITTs, adjudication of bids, building capacity of the people involved in the process of procurement and resolution of disputes.

In order to achieve faster cycle times in the delivery of its services, PPADB has decentralized its role by forming of committees at Ministry level and at District level. The committees formed at Ministry level are called MTCs and the committees formed at District level are called DATCs. It is the strategy of PPADB to overtime devolve its authority and increase the thresholds of MTCs and DATCs to adjudicate on the process of procurement and take decisions.

At present, most of the core functions of the PPADB and its committees are performed manually, including documents storage and retrieval. The lack of appropriate systems at PPADB and its committees is leading to longer cycle time in vetting of ITTs and adjudication of bids, which has a negative impact on the overall procurement cycle time and delivery of Government services to citizens.